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Форум » ВОЕННОПЛЕННЫЕ - ШТАЛАГИ, ОФЛАГИ, КОНЦЛАГЕРЯ » Концлагеря » Kgf.Lager Auschwitz (KZ Auschwitz) (Oświęcim , Poland)
Kgf.Lager Auschwitz (KZ Auschwitz)
КудрявцевДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 01.10.46 | Сообщение # 211
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Цитата (Nestor)
Но там есть еще и августовская дата


Ну вообще-то это дата поступления документа в WAST. Поэтому можно и не путаться.
 
NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 01.50.28 | Сообщение # 212
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Вы хотите сказать, что для ВАСТа специально выписывались зеленые карты?

Будьте здоровы!
 
СаняДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 02.00.07 | Сообщение # 213
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Nestor,
Цитата (Nestor)
Еще сложнее. Регистрационные карточки самого КЛ (на тех, кто там находился более менее продолжительное время) выглядят совершенно иначе. Никаких данных о существовании лазарета в Освенциме в то время, обслуживавшем пленных, не имеется.

То,что пленные продолжали подчинятся Вермахту говорит отправка данных о смерти в ВАСТ.
То,что пленные имеют диагнозы смерти,говорит,что их писали врачи,ибо только они имеют право ставить диагнозы.

Цитата (Nestor)
Зато есть данные, что именно тогда, в октябре 1941 г., в Освенциме впервые использовали газовую камеру для массового уничтожения на советских пленных.


Я таких данных не видел.Читал только фантазии советских пропагандистов и холокостеров ,не подкрепленные документами.


Qui quaerit, reperit
 
NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 08.10.59 | Сообщение # 214
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Цитата (Саня)
продолжали подчинятся Вермахту говорит отправка данных о смерти в ВАСТ.

Мне кажется, слово "подчиняться" тут не подходит. Правильнее, по-моему, выразиться "находиться на учете, балансе". А в чем суть учета с военной т. зр.? Это значит выделить определенное количество наромест, пайков и других ресурсов под содержание. А практически, по советскому уставу конвойной службы заключенные / пленные числились за лагерем отправки по момент передачи конвоируемого контингента представителям лагеря приемки. Из Брестской области на Камчатку или в район Анадыря могли этапировать в течение до более 3 месяцев и все это время конвоируемые числились за лагерем отправки. Думаю, что и в вермахте действовал тот же порядок. Но кроме того, у нас существовала формула "передан УНКВД", синонимичная немецкой формулировке "передан СД", что ничего хорошего для заключенных / пленных не означало. Это перевод, передача из одной системы в другую. На картах 1941 г. я записи / штампа "передан СД" не видел ни разу. Они начали ставиться несколько поздней, точнее сказать затрудняюсь. Возможно, где-то с конца 1941 г. или с начала 1942-го. Но по середину октября 1941 г. они, по-моему, вовсе отсутствовали. Известно, что в Майданеке с начала войны существовал дулаг. Но что такое дулаг на территории Г. Г. достаточно неблизко от советской границы? Это не Бяла-Подляска какая-нибудь, от которой до Бреста всего день бодрого пешего хода. Кроме того, вместимость дулага Майданек была исключительно маленькой, порядка всего менее 100 мест. В действительности это была транзитная точка учета, с которой пленные отправлялись на места массового уничтожения, в основном в Хелмно. Возможно, нечто в таком же роде существовало и в Освенциме, за всю историю которого там перебывало всего до 60 тыс. пленных, а единовременно никогда не было более 2 тыс. За исключением октября 1941 г., когда туда прибыло в общей сложности до более 10 тыс., которые были умерщвлены в газовых камерах.
Короче, я объясняю данный случай так. В октябре 1941 г. еще не была выработана система документального оформления массовых казней военнопленных силами зондеркоманд. Поздней появились отметки на картах "передан СД", а в то время это еще не практиковалось. Однако задачу учета, отчетности это не снимало. Каким-то образом должно было документироваться. Мы видим это по картам Освенцима от октября 1941 г. Притом я должен оговориться, что не все пленные, прибывшие тогда туда, документированы по картам умершими от разных болезней дня через 2-4 по приезде. Мне попадались карты умерших и значительно позже, в 1942 г. Правда, я не считал их количества. Редко, но попадались.
Цитата

То,что пленные имеют диагнозы смерти,говорит,что их писали врачи,ибо только они имеют право ставить диагнозы.

Вы в курсе, что в Освенциме со врачами проблем не было? Их хватало. И мы хорошо знаем, что это были за врачи и когда и как они выписывали причины смерти.
Цитата

Цитата (Nestor)
Зато есть данные, что именно тогда, в октябре 1941 г., в Освенциме впервые использовали газовую камеру для массового уничтожения на советских пленных.

Я таких данных не видел.Читал только фантазии советских пропагандистов и холокостеров ,не подкрепленные документами.

Стыдно не знать таких вещей. Советские пропагандисты и холокостеры тут вообще ни с какого боку. Сей факт был достоверно установлен международной комиссией по расследованию преступлений в Освенциме, учрежденной Нюрнбергским трибуналом. Она собрала свидетельства, документы. Все они опубликованы в материалах Нюрнбергского процесса. Учите матчасть.


Будьте здоровы!

Сообщение отредактировал Nestor - Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 08.26.45
 
СаняДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 08.26.35 | Сообщение # 215
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Nestor,
Вы, как всегда,много сказали,но ничего не доказали.


Qui quaerit, reperit
 
NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 08.53.35 | Сообщение # 216
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Из справки Черновалова о 308:

Шталаг 308 (VIII E), Нейхаммер упоминается в оперативном приказе ? 9 начальника гестапо и СД от 21 июля 1941 года в перечне лагерей для деятельности айнзатцкоманд СС на территории Германии. Выявление и отбор "нежелательных русских" проводился полицейским управлением Бреслау и "неблагонадёжные" переводились в КЛ Гросс-Розен и КЛ Аушвиц.
Первая партия военнопленных была доставлена в лагерь 17 июля 1941 года. [По другим источникам: 12 июля 1941].
Часть прибывших после регистрации 21 июля была переведена в шталаг III B, Фюрстенберг.

К концу августа в шталаге Нейхаммер было зарегистрировано около 30 000 человек.
В учетных документах на советских военнопленных этого периода была встречена запись "abgestellt n. d. K. lager Auschwitz". Имеется предположение, что в конце августа эти военнопленные (в частности с личными номерами 13852, 17939, 21107), были переведены в лагерь СС Аушвиц (концлагерь Освенцим), где по свидетельству О. Барановского "в августе 1941 года в 11-м бараке было уничтожено газом 400 советских военнопленных офицеров и политруков". [По другим сведениям, представляющимися более точным, - 3 сентября 1941 года медицинский эксперимент по отравлению газом "Циклон-Б" был проведен на 600 русских военнопленных и 250 узниках лагерной больницы.]

В начале октября 1941 года несколько тысяч человек были направлены в команду ? 46, Аушвиц -- место прибытия лагерь СС Аушвиц (Освенцим). В личной карте военнопленного делалась отметка "Kdo 46, Auschwitz". Прибытие подтверждалось записью "SS lager Auschwitz zugang am 8. 10. 41 aus stalag 308". Переводы состоялись:
- 4 октября - 2.014 человек,
- 6 октября - около 2 тысяч человек с прибытием в Аушвиц 8 октября,
- 13 октября - около 2 тысяч человек с прибытием в Аушвиц 14 октября.

http://artofwar.ru/c/chernowalow_w_w/st308.shtml


Будьте здоровы!

Сообщение отредактировал Nestor - Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 08.55.46
 
СаняДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 09.00.19 | Сообщение # 217
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Nestor,
Слава,обрати внимание,что и Черноглазов упоминает про больницу

Цитата (Nestor)
и 250 узниках лагерной больницы


Qui quaerit, reperit
 
ГеннадийДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 09.27.11 | Сообщение # 218
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Отвечу на соображения
"... Для меня до сих пор остается загадкой ,что за статус у карточек заполненных в Аушвитц.Если учитывать,что они заполнены только на умерших,еще больше убеждаюсь,что это карточки лазарета КЛ Ацшвитц,а не регистрационные карточки самого КЛ."
Коллеги! Какие "лазаретные"?! Да такие же персональные! Те же графы, что в вермахте!
И потом: кто же стал бы НА УМЕРШИХ рассматривать их цвет глаз, а? А языки, которыми владеет пленный, ТОЖЕ получали у мертвого? :)
Ну, и папу-маму умерший тоже не мог назвать.


С уважением,
Геннадий
Буду благодарен за информацию о побегах советских военнопленных
Suche alles über Fluchtversuche von russischen Kriegsgefangenen.
 
NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 09.36.12 | Сообщение # 219
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Еще одна публикация Черновалова:

Kdo 46, Auschwitz
Виктор Че
Весной 1941 года на территории VIII военного округа (Бреслау) Германии в районе польского местечка Свентошув был создан лагерь для содержания будущих советских военнопленных. В официальных документах он обозначался как «шталаг 308 (VIII E), Нейхаммер». Летом - осенью 1941 года он выполнял функцию распределительного пункта. Через Нейхаммер прошло более 50 тысяч советских военнопленных, впоследствии отправленных в другие лагеря или рабочие команды. Но для группы от 6 до 8 тысяч человек место дальнейшего перевода стало последним и трагичным.
В немецких документах оно было записано как «команда 46, Аушвиц». Ни на довоенных, ни на современных картах вы нигде не найдете такого названия, только в немецких документах 1941-1944 годов. И в то же время это место известно всему миру. Вариант возникновения названия Аушвиц встретился в рассказе бывшего узника концлагеря Вадима Бойко: «Аушвиц - это искусственное название, придуманное Гиммлером для нового концлагеря СС, первоначально планировавшегося для содержания советских военнопленных. Составлено оно из сокращения немецкого «аусшлиссе» - «выключать, изолировать от общества» и окончания названия ряда близлежащих польских населенных пунктов – «витц». Однако более правильным представляется предположение о том, что после включения в состав третьего рейха было использовано название, данное австрийцами во время разделов Польши. Сегодня более известно польское название места первоначального расположения лагеря. Это Освенцим - впоследствии лагерь массового уничтожения людей. Его жертвами стали более 4 миллионов человек. Число погибших советских граждан исчисляется десятками тысяч и точно не установлено.

Первые сведения о советских военнопленных в Аушвице относятся к лету 1941 года. Около 300 человек были доставлены в лагерь в начале июля. Предположительно, это были танкисты, взятые в плен в районе Львова. Их поместили в 11-й блок, стоявший отдельно, и использовали на строительстве особого лагеря для военнопленных.
В августе из шталага 308 (VIII E), Нейхаммер в Аушвиц была отправлена ещё одна партия военнопленных. Сведений о дате перевода и количестве нет, но по немецким документам удалось установить трёх человек:

- Большаков Иван Васильевич, род. 1920 г., Гремячка Горьковской обл.; рядовой, 87 погранотряд;
- Лушников Михаил Владимирович, род. 1921, г. Саратов; рядовой, пограничник;
- Скобликов Василий Михайлович, род. 1920, г. Минск, рядовой, 86 погранотряд;

К началу сентября было построено 9 блоков, огороженных забором из колючей проволоки, через которую был пропущен электрический ток. На воротах нового лагеря надпись: «Russisches Kriegsgefangenen Arbeitslager» – «Трудовой лагерь русских военнопленных».

В августе 1941 года по свидетельству О. Барановского в 11-м бараке Аушвица было уничтожено газом 400 советских военнопленных офицеров и политруков. По другим сведениям, представляющимися более точными, - 3 сентября 1941 года медицинский эксперимент по отравлению газом «Циклон-Б» был проведен на 600 русских военнопленных и 250 узниках лагерной больницы. Обреченных на смерть загнали в подвал 11-го блока, окна и двери которого замазали глиной и рассыпали гранулы «циклона Б»
Свидетельство очевидца: (сентябрь 1941 г.) «Сильнее всего врезалась в память газация 900 русских в старом крематории
, поскольку использование блока 11 было затруднено. Еще во время разгрузки было пробито несколько отверстий сверху через земляное и бетонное перекрытие морга. Русских заставили раздеться в коридоре, и они совершенно спокойно вошли в морг, так как им было сказано, что будет проведена санобработка против вшей. Весь транспорт, таким образом, оказался в морге. Дверь заперли и через отверстия пустили газ. Как долго длилось убийство, я не знаю. Некоторое время еще был слышен зуммер. При пуске кто-то крикнул: "Газ", в ответ раздался вой и стук в обе двери. Но они выдержали напор. Только через несколько часов открыли и проветрили. Я впервые увидел трупы погибших от газового удушения в таком количестве. Мне сделалось не по себе до дрожи, хотя я представлял себе смерть от газа еще хуже. Я полагал, что это мучительная смерть от удушья. Но трупы были без каких-либо признаков судорог. Как мне объяснили врачи, синильная кислота действует парализующе на легкие, и это воздействие настолько внезапное и сильное, что дело не доходит до явлений удушья, как это имеет место при применении светильного газа или при откачке кислорода из воздуха. Об уничтожении русских военнопленных я тогда не задумывался. Было приказано, и я должен был выполнять приказ. … Теперь мы нашли газ и способ его применения.» Рудольф Гесс. Комендант Освенцима.

В октябре 1941 года из шталага 308 (VIIIE), Нейхаммер (4 октября – 2014 человек, 6 и 13 октября (численность неизвестна) и шталага 318 (VIIIF), Ламсдорф (20 октября – около 2500 человек) в Аушвиц были отправлены 4 больших партии советских военнопленных. В учетной документации, предназначенной для передачи в Управление по делам военнопленных в таком случае делалась запись: «СС лагерь Аушвитц. Прибыл 7.10.41 из шталага».
В справке о ходе строительства лагеря военнопленных в Освенциме от 17 ноября 1941 сообщалось, что в лагерь Освенцим «до сего времени» прибыло около 10 000 русских. Из публикаций польских историков известно, что на 1-2 тысячи пленных приходилось 20-30 человек, умерших в пути. По свидетельству коменданта лагеря СС Аушвиц Гесса: «Офицеры конвоя говорили мне, что они выбрали самый лучший человеческий материал среди массы пленных, которыми они располагали».
В Аушвице пленных поместили в 9 отдельных бараков, огражденных от общего лагеря колючей проволокой под током высокого напряжения. Рабочая команда № 46, Аушвиц (трудовой лагерь для советских военнопленных) занималась строительством и расширением вблизи Бжезинки филиала Ocвенцима, ставшего лагерем массового уничтожения - Освенцим II (Биркенау) Узники «трудового лагеря» были зарегистрированы под отдельными номерами от 0 до 9997 с литером R (номер выжигался на левой стороне груди).
Свидетельство очевидца: «...Зимой 1941 года, в тридцатипятиградусные морозы, по дороге из лагеря Освенцим в село Бабице ежедневно в течение двух недель, как скот, гнали плетьми и палками русских военнопленных. Многие из них были без шапок, в одних гимнастерках в одних кальсонах, с изорванной обувью. Вечером из села Бабице направлялось несколько подвод полные трупами этих русских военнопленных. На каждой подводе наверху сидели по два-три их товарища, с обмороженными лицами, руками и ногами, до крайности измученные». Гандзлик Мариан, житель города Освенцим.

В ноябре из Катовиц в лагерь прибыла специальная комиссия гестапо, которая в ходе допросов разделила пленных на три группы. Первую, около 300 человек, определенную, так «коммунисты» изолировали и в декабре 1941 года уничтожили в II блоке. Из состава второй группы –«политически нежелательных» 300 человек были отравлены в ходе экспериментов с газом «Циклон Б», а 400 человек ликвидировали небольшими группами во II блоке.
Смертность людей от голода, холода, каторжных условий труда была необычайно высока. По сохранившейся книге регистрации умерших впоследствии было установлено, что:
в октябре 1941 года умерло 1255 человек,
в ноябре -3276,
в декабре - 1912,
в январе – 1017,
в феврале 1942 года - 455 человек.
В регистрационной книге погибших советских военнопленных в Освенциме с 7 октября 1941 г. по 28 февраля 1942 г. записано 8320 имен.
По воспоминаниям узников в марте 1942 года во время работ на дровяном складе один из советских военнопленных зарубил топором эсэсовца. В наказание все работавшие в этой команде были расстреляны. К августу 1942 года из 10 тысяч человек, направленных в рабочую команду № 46, Аушвиц в живых осталось только 36 человек. Поэтому трудовой лагерь советских военнопленных был ликвидирован. Выжившие и прибывающие новыми партиями пленные были переведены в Освенцим II (Биркенау) в сектор В I в. На этом история «Kdo 46, Auschwitz» закончилась и началась история Освенцима.

Список использованных источников:
1. Центр документации новейшей истории Саратовской области, Ф. 6210
2. Датнер Ш. Преступления немецко-фашистского вермахта в отношении военнопленных во второй мировой войне. М., Издательство иностранной литературы. 1963
3. Алексеев Н.С, Злодеяния и возмездие, М., Юридическая литература, 1986,
4. Шнеер А.И., Плен, Т.1, Кн. II, Ч.2, Гл. 2 «Офицеры в плену» (http://www.jewniverse.ru/RED/Shneyer/index.htm)
5. Cybulski B. «Ošwięcimscy» jeńcy radzieccy w KL Gross – Rosen // Acta universitatis Wratislaviensis. № 815 – Wroclaw. 1987
6. сб. Война Германии против Советского Союза 1941-1945. Документальная экспозиция города Берлина к 50-летию со дня нападения Германии на Советский Союз. М.; Берлин: Аргон, 1994.
7. Бойко В. Я. После казни. М.: Молодая Гвардия. 1975
8. Освенцим (http://rolandxxx.narod.ru/osven.html)

© Copyright: Виктор Че, 2005
Свидетельство о публикации №205012800080

http://www.proza.ru/2005/01/28-80


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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 10.22.15 | Сообщение # 220
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Очень хорошая книжка по теме http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0.htm

Jean-Claude Pressac. AUSCHWITZ: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers

Порядка 500 страниц. Детальнейше описана технология, в книге опубликованы сотни трофейных фото, чертежей и документов.

Оттуда:

Drawing 2: Bauleitung drawing 801 of 8/11/1941
[PMO neg. No. 209321/I ]

ENTLAUSUNGSANLAGE FOR KGL / delousing installation for prisoner of war camp

Scale 1:100
Drawn 8th November 1941 by prisoner No. 127,
checked on 10th by SS Untersturmführer Walther Dejaco
and approved on 11th by SS Hauptsturmtführer Karl Bischoff. head of the Bauleitung.



Translations of the inscriptions
the four BW 5a and 5B drawings:

The same terms found on different drawings are
translated only once, in the order
of their appearance)

Ansicht / elevation
· Giebelansicht / gable end elevation
· Windfang (WF )/ windbreak
· Aborte / toilets
· Grundriss / plan view
· Gaskammer / gas chamber
· Schleuse / airlock
· Rollierung / smoothing by roller
· Vorraum / vestibule Schnitt A-B / cross section A-B (“clean” side)
· Schnitt C-D / cross section C-D (of the gas chamber)
· Wasch und Brauseraum / washing and shower room
· Unreine Seite, Auskleideraum / dirty side, undressing room
· Reine Seite. Ankleideraum / clean side, dressing room
· Drainage / drainage
· Klappe / trap.

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0055.htm

Фишка в том, что на чертеже изображен тот самый блок II, о котором говорится в очерке Черновалова.


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Сообщение отредактировал Nestor - Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 10.46.15
 
NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 10.54.37 | Сообщение # 221
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Drawing 11:

Bauleitung Drawing 3084 [PMO neg. no. 20930/7]

Bestandplan der Desinfektions- und Entwesungsanlage (K.G.L. Auschwitz) / Inventory drawing of the disinfection and disinfestation installation
(Auschwitz POW camp)

Scale 1: 200
Drawn by prisoner 23241and checked by
Dejaco and Teichmann (civilian worker) on 28/10/43,
approved by Jothann on 30/or 31/10/43.



Translation of the inscriptions:
· Schnitt a-b / cross section a-b
· Schnitt c-d / cross section c-d
· Ost-Ansicht / east elevation
· Nord-Ansicht / north elevation
· Kellergeschoss und Fundamentalen / basement and foundation plans
· Ofenfundament / oven foundation
· Brunnen / well
· Heizraum / boiler room
· Brennstoffraum / fuel store
· Lageplan 1:5000 / situation drawing 1:5000
· Kläranlage / sewage treatment plant
· Entwesungsanlage / disinfestation installation
· Krematorium / Krematorium (IV)
· Krankenbau / hospital (B.a.IIf)
· Erdgeschoss / ground floor (see drawing [Drawing 5] with illegible number of 2/3/43 for translations)

In the “Boilerraum / hot water tank room”:

· 2 Rückschlagventil 2 1/2"/ 2 1/2" non return valves.
· 2 Absperventil 2 1/2 / 2 1/ 2" cut-off valves
· W.R. / washroom.

The ground floor plan shows that the pressure vessel is connected to the two hot water tanks. There is no indication of the steam supply to the three autoclaves. The plans of the basement and ground floor show that next to each autoclave on the dirty side is a drain, covered with a grating, for the evacuation of waste water.

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0076.htm


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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 11.15.43 | Сообщение # 222
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Photo 14: [PMO neg. no. 20995/473 and 474]

Overall view of the east and south sides of the Zentral Sauna in winter 1943.
Finishing touches are being made to the exterior. The entire building is heated,
as shown by the absence of snow on the roofs. Disinfestation chambers
3 and 4 are working.

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0077.htm


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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 11.21.31 | Сообщение # 223
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Brief history of Topf & Sons

1878 - 1963

MESSRS TOPF & SONS

THE FIRM OF TOPF & SONS, 1878-1963

This new concentration camp market opened up an undreamed of outlet as from October 1941: the Auschwitz camp. The two double-muffle furnaces installed in Krematorium I were no longer adequate and a third of the same type was ordered at the end of September. But this additional order, worth 9,000 RM to Topf, was chicken-feed compared with what was to follow. On 22nd October. Prüfer met the new head of the Bauleitung (“Construction Management”) at Auschwitz, SS Captain Karl Bischoff. The SS wanted to build another crematorium in the camp, considering that Krematorium I, even with 6 muffles, would soon reach saturation point. Bischoff was well-placed to know this. because he had been posted to Auschwitz to build a POW camp [KGL] (for Russian prisoners) to hold 125,000 men. The site chosen was Birkenau, flat land, but marshy and therefore requiring drainage. The working conditions and then living conditions were terrible and were to remain so. The result was an extremely high mortality rate, which required a modern and efficient crematorium. Bischoff was not yet sure where the new crematorium would be located, but in his conversation with Prüfer it was to be in the main camp. On 30th October, it was included in the estimates for the POW camp, at Birkenau. Wherever the location was to be, Prufer could hardly believe his ears, for Bischoff was thinking big, very big. And Prüfer, encouraging him in this direction, was reflecting and calculating. The result of this conversation was agreement on a project for a crematorium with five three-muffle furnaces, fed by two big underground morgues. In addition there was to be a single-muffle waste incinerator. The cremation capacity envisaged was 60 corpses per hour, or a throughput of 1,440 in 24 hours. The expected cost of the entire building was 650.000 RM and the minimum Topf could expect would be 5 three-muffle furnaces at 12,000 RM each, making 60.000 RM, to say nothing of the waste incinerator worth about 5,800 RM and the sundry other supplies [in fact Topf received a total of 110,000 RM for their installations in Krematorium II as the “new Krematorium” came to be designated]. It is quite likely that at this date Prüfer had not even designed the three-muffle furnace yet. But he set to work the moment he got back to Erfurt.

When the two men met. Prüfer must have appeared to Bischoff to be a real magician in cremation matters. The engineer designed his furnaces to be efficient and cheap. Instead of simply building single-muffle furnaces alongside one another until the capacity desired by the client was reached, with no possibility of reducing the price except by giving a quantity discount, Prüfer’s idea was to group several muffles in the same furnace and thus reduce the cost of production, and hence the price, considerably. His double-muffle furnace had two fireboxes. His three-muffle furnace also had only two fireboxes. And as for the four-muffle furnace (which could be twinned to give an eight-muffle furnace), two fireboxes were still sufficient. This meant less metal parts, economics in construction and lower cost and price. Bischoff must have been captivated and it is clear from subsequent events that the two men got on well. Bischoff could not resist telling his chief in the SS Economic Administration Head Office in Berlin, Dr Ing Kammler, about Prüfer’s remarkable knowledge of “cremation

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0095.htm

Science”. This information was soon to bear fruit, for on 4th December 1941, Topf received an order from Himmler’s headquarters for four-twinned four-muffle (or four eight-muffle) furnaces, giving 32 cremation muffles, for the Mogilew prisoner of war camp in the Soviet Union. On 9th December 1941, Topf accepted what was to be known as the “Mogilew Contract”. Following this order and before its acceptance by Topf, Prüfer requested a meeting with his two directors, in order to ask for a well-deserved bonus. The truth is that thanks to Prüfer’s designs, the firm was very competitive in the field of cremation furnaces. They could now offer an eight-muffle furnace for 13,800 RM. whereas an equivalent battery of single-muffle furnaces from another firm would cost about 30,000 RM. In a month and a half, Prüfer had negotiated contracts for over 60,000 RM worth of three-muffle furnaces for Auschwitz and 55,200 RM worth of eight-muffle furnaces for Mogilew: a total of 115,200 RM for Topf. The designer of both these models was Prüfer himself, who had worked on them during his free time. On 6th December, Prüfer put his request for a bonus in writing and sent it to the two Topf brothers. On 24th December, an exceptional bonus of 150 RM was duly paid [Document 3] In late 1941 and early 1942, the business deals negotiated by Prüfer for Topf, even though they may appear “special” or even monstrous, were in fact “normal” and in no way reprehensible.

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0096.htm

И т. д. (Но дальше многажды интересней! В Могилеве, к слову, массовое уничтожение пленных тоже производилось газами, первоначально угарным. Далее много подробных сведений о крематориях в Маутхаузене)

Справка составлена никакими не холокостерами и не советскими пропагандистами. Обратите, пожалуйста, внимание на то, что в тексте справки вообще нет слов "евреи", но речь идет исключительно о массовом уничтожении советских военнопленных. Впредь не ведитесь тупо, пожалуйста, на узколобую антисоветскую дезу.


Будьте здоровы!

Сообщение отредактировал Nestor - Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 11.48.07
 
NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 12.02.15 | Сообщение # 224
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Like all human testimony, these accounts frequently contain unlikely affirmations, and a critical comparison, for example on the equipment of the gas chamber, gives contradictory results.

1. ALTER FAJNZYLBERG affirms that an incineration muffle in one of the three furnaces (the mouth opening was 0.60 x 0.60m, and the internal dimensions 0.70 x 0.70 x 2.10m, or 1.029m3 according to Topf drawing D57253) could “swallow” TWELVE bodies at a time (which is mathematically possible, but not practically), but that normally five were “fitted in”. The latter figure is closer to reality which was on average three (normal adult) bodies at a time. The witness clearly gave way here to the general tendency to exaggerate at that time (in the years 1945–50). His description of the equipment of Krematorium I is valid (though the building had been converted into an air raid shelter and the furnaces had been removed), except for its length (50m) and the dimensions given to its gas chamber: 30 x 5m (150m²) instead of 17 x 46m (78.2m²). This error in estimation is more than excusable, in particular as the PMO, in a note to his figures [30 x 5m], indicates the following dimensions: 17.00 x 4.50m giving a floor area of 65m² [!], an area regularly reproduced in the early histories of the camp, but not corresponding to the facts. What is remarkable n his new declaration in September 1980 is that the witness repeats exactly the same dimensions as he did in April 1945, a proof of the sincerity and authenticity of his statements.

2. FILIP MÜLLER wrote that in May 1942 (the date of his arrival at the camp, page 23), the chimney of Krematorium I was of circular section (p. 37) [an initial state confirmed verbally to the author in 1981 by a former prisoner. Mrs. Hertig, No. 68919, who lived in the town of Auschwitz before being interned in the camp]. The Topf

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0126.htm

drawings for the installation o f the third furnace (“neuer Ofen / new furnace”) 59042 a and b of 25th September 1941 indicate that the chimney was a square section and thus had already been rebuilt. This casts a doubt on the presence of the witness during the fire that he describes (pages 45 and 46) and the resulting damage to the chimney that had to he rebuilt more solidly, hence of square section. However, there is a series of documents concerned with an order of 13th May 1942 by the camp administration [Documents C1a and C1b] requesting the repair of the Krematorium [I] chimney (first item), which is wrong, because the description of the work [Documents C2a and C2b, C3a and C3b] and the final report [Documents C4a and C4b] show that the repair was actually only on an underground flue ("Kaminnterkanal"). These documents fully confirm the witness’s account of the accident (jets of cold water on fire bricks heated to a a temperature of 800-1000° C), but negate the existence of a “round” chimney in May 1942, because even the sketch on the description of the work [C2a] shows it to be square.

This error on the form of the Krematorium I chimney, first noted by the Auschwitz Museum, is minor, since the damage caused by the accident is confirmed by the repair documents. F. Müller. who can be seen in Claude Lanzmann's film “SHOAH” (script published by Fayard in 1985, where he states on page 73 that “the firebricks exploded suddenly, and the [underground] flues linking the Auschwitz Krematorium to the chimney were obstructed”, an explanation perfectly in line with the repair documents) is a valuable witness with a “technical” eye, even if like anyone else, he is sometimes mistaken (on facts going back 40 years!).

3. RUDOLF HOESS describes one of the first gassings [of 900 Russian prisoners of war] at which he was present, in the morgue of Krematorium I (page 164). Two details are unlikely: the squeezing of 900 persons into 78.2m² and the “rapid” drilling of several holes in the ceiling to pour the Zyklon B. Drilling through 10 to 15cm of concrete was not a job that could be done on the spur of the moment.

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0127.htm

Hoess participated in the “special actions” strictly in accordance with his obligations and occupied his mind with the almost insurmountable tasks imposed by the exponential growth of his camp, thus not allowing his conscience to dwell on the moral question. He was present, without seeing. In the author’s opinion, this attitude explains the involuntary errors found throughout his autobiography.

4. PERY BROAD's testimony raises problems yet to be solved. His account of the various “activities” of the camp is one of the most striking. But the form and tone of his declaration sound false. His writings cannot be the faithful reflection of the thoughts of an SS man and indeed reading them gives the impression that they were written by a former prisoner. Pages 148 and 149 and 153 to 156 have to be read carefully for this to be seen. Lastly, who wrote (page 172): “for these SS monsters, the spectacle of the suffering of ill treated Jews constituted an amusing pastime!” (true as that may have been)?

The basis of P. Broad’s testimony seems authentic, despite many errors, but its present literary form is visibly coloured by a rather too flagrant Polish patriotism. Furthermore, the original manuscript of his declaration is not known, However, this text should not be rejected and its “special tone” can be explained: either Broad had adopted the “language of the victor” (hypothesis put forward by Pierre Vidat Naquet), or his declaration has been “slightly” reworked by the Poles (present author’s opinion.

Whatever criticisms one might level at the might level at the accounts of these four witnesses, all affirm one identical fact: homicidal gassings took place in the morgue of Krematorium I. Even if their accounts diverge on the number of holes through which Zyklon B was poured or on the number of extractor fans, details in fact unlikely to be noted and remembered unless one actually designed or installed them, the utilisation of the morgue for criminal purposes is established.

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0128.htm


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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 12.19.47 | Сообщение # 225
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The morgue

From an “ordinary” morgue it gradually became a place for “knocking over”, a term designating execution by shooting in the back of the neck with a small caliber firearm, a practice used by the Political Section of the camp on those it condemned. Rather than transporting to the Krematorium the bodies of prisoners executed in the yard between Blocks 10 and 11, at the other end of the camp, much effort was saved by taking the victims directly on foot from Block 11 to the morgue of the Krematorium and shooting them there.

At the end of 1941 the morgue was transformed into a homicidal gas chamber operating on Zyklon B, the regulation hydrocyanic acid disinfection agent used by the Wehrmacht, produced by Degesh and distributed in the east of the Reich by Tesch und Stabenow (Testa).

The present area of the gas chamber is 98m², including the airlock at the south east end. Initially, it covered 78m² and had a volume of 224m³ [or a little less than half the volume of the gas chambers in Krematorien II and III]. The two gas tight doors, one opening on the furnace room and the other on the washing room, had three thicknesses of board and were sealed with felt [one of these gas tight doors with no peephole is visible leaning against the wall where the third furnace used to be]. In the ceiling there were at least three openings for pouring Zyklon B [Photo 14] which was thrown in directly and scattered

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0131.htm

over the victims. 3kg [1 kg per opening] were required to kill the 500 to 700 people that the morgue could hold. It would appear that one or two extractor fans were installed in the ceiling [according to the testimonies of Fajnzylberg, Müller and Broad].

The homicidal gassings

The first experimental gassing took place on 3rd September 1941. using Zyklon B in the basement of Block 11, the openings of which had been crudely sealed with earth. The victims were 250 sick prisoners and 600 Russians. The next day, an SS man wearing a gas mask went to see the results and saw that some of the guinea pigs were still alive. More Zyklon B was introduced. On the evening of the 5th nobody moved any more. The corpses were then transported by a group of prisoners to Krematorium I to be incinerated. Shortly afterwards 900 Russian prisoners according to former camp Kommandant Hoess [in fact between 500 and 700], were gassed directly in the morgue of Krematorium I, which avoided the need to transport the bodies. Then, in January 1942, operations began at Birkenau Bunker 1, which had two small gas chambers for the extermination of Jews.

During the gassings, a certain area around Krematorium I was sealed off. Furthermore, it was forbidden to look at the roof of the Krematorium which was visible from the windows of the SS hospital located on the first floor of the building nearest to the Krematorium, separated from it only by the “Kasernenstrasse”. The Krematorium forecourt was closed off and served as an undressing place for the victims who were then pushed into the morgue. The two gas tight doors were closed and Zyklon B was injected through three openings in the roof. Outside, a truck kept its engine running during the whole operation to drown the cries.

It is not known how many deaths were caused by this gas chamber, which was used only occasionally and not continuously. The number is probably not more than 10,000.

Krematorium I functioned as a cremation installation from November 1940 to July 1943. Its gas chamber was used sporadically from the end of 1941 to 1942, but precise dates are not known. The installation was abandoned in 1943, its three furnaces dismantled and the chimney demolished.

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0132.htm

В упоминаемом в тексте блоке 11 содержались, как известно, советские пленные. Следовательно, как говорится также в тексте, в период c сентября 1941 г. до 1943 г., их было убито в газовой камере, а затем сожжено в крематории I в пределах 10 тысяч.


Будьте здоровы!

Сообщение отредактировал Nestor - Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 12.26.40
 
NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 12.49.39 | Сообщение # 226
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TOPF & SOHNE DRAWING D 59042 [a]

[PMO neg. no. 20818/1]
of 25th September 1941, scale 1:100

Einbau einer Einäscherungsanlage für K L Auschwitz / construction of a cremation facility for Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
[Top left is the stamp of the Cracow regional Commission for Investigation of German crimes]

Translation of inscriptions:

· Grundriss / plan drawing
· Neuer Ofen / new furnace
· Druckluftgebläse / pulsed air blower
· Drehscheibe / turntable
· Ofen / furnace
· Ofenraum / furnace room
· Koks / coke
· Urnen / urns
· Vorraum / vestibule
· Aufb[ahrungs]raum / laying out room
· Waschraum / washing room
· Leichenhalle / morgue [corpse hall]

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0151.htm

Умерщвление советских пленных газом производилось в помещении морга.


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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 13.44.08 | Сообщение # 227
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HISTORY OF KREMATORIEN II & III

Design – Construction – Utilization – Destruction

The sections “Design” and “Construction” will be dealt with chronologically, as in the "Kalendarium der Ereignisse im Konzentrationslager" [Calendar of events in the concentration camp] by Danuta Czech, certain items of which are incorporated in the present text. The documents on which the argument is based either accompany the text or appear in the annex of documents. Thus, everything set out here, frequently as the result of extensive study presented separately in annex, reflects our present state of knowledge concerning these buildings.

The “Utilization” section takes the form of a guided tour in the ruins of Krematorien II and III and refers the reader to the excellent testimony of Henryk Tauber [Part III, Chapter 3] for further details.

Krematorium II functioned as a homicidal gas chamber and incineration installation from 15th March 1943, before its officially coming into service on 31st March, to 27th November 1944, annihilating a total of approximately 400,000 people, most of them Jewish women, children and old men.

Krematorium III was used in similar fashion from 25th June 1943 to 27th November 1944, killing about 350,000 victims.

Thus approximately three quarters of the Jewish victims of KL Auschwitz Birkenau were gassed and reduced to ashes in these two buildings.

DESIGN AND IMPLANTATION IN THE POW CAMP

The main orders issued by Himmler as a result of his visit to Auschwitz KL [Concentration Camp] on 1st March 1941 were that the Stammlager [main camp] should be extended to receive 30,000 prisoners and that a camp should be built at Birkenau to hold an expected 100,000 Soviet prisoners of war.

The Camp Commandant, Rudolf Hoess, despite all his good will as an old Party Member, was technically incapable of undertaking and completing such a task, but nevertheless the extension of the Stammlager was begun in summer 1941, using bricks from the demolition of the Zasole district, situated immediately to she north of the KL.

In order to build the Birkenau POW Camp (Kriegsgefangenenlager or KGL). Amtsgruppe C (Bauwesen/Construction) of the SS Wirstschaftsverwaltungshauptamt or SS WVHA [SS Economic and Administrative Main Office] in Berlin detached SS Captain Karl Bischoff as Sonderbauleiter [Special Head of Construction], later to become “Leiter der Zentral Bauleitung / Head of the Central Construction Management” of the Auschwitz region.

The first plan of the KGL was produced on 7th October 1941, drawn by Fritz Ertl, then an SS Corporal, and approved by Bischoff on the following day [Document 1]. The camp comprised three parts: a Quarantine Camp (the future B.I) containing a "Leichenhalle/ Corpse hall" and two internment camps (Camps I and II, whose total area was a little greater than that of the future B.II). There was no plan for a rail link with the nearby Auschwitz station, A week later, on 14th October 1941, a second plan was produced [Document 2] on the same basis as the earlier one, this time including barracks for the SS guards to the east and a double track railway running from the station and ending between Camp I and the Quarantine Camp. still equipped with a "Leichenhalle" to serve as a morgue to store corpses before their transfer to the Stammlager for incineration in the crematorium there.

With an overall total of 130,000 persons expected for the Stammlager and KGL together, it was foreseeable that the two or three 2 muffle furnaces of the single existing crematorium (i.e. 1 muffle for 22,000 or 32,000 prisoners) would prove insufficient. At the end of October 1941, Bischoff had a conversation with Kurt Prüfer, Chief Engineer of the “Krematoriumbau” department of the firm Topf & Söhne of Erfurt, concerning the construction of a new crematorium in the Stammlager (behind the existing one), the new building to have a furnace room with five 3 muffle furnaces, two “Leichenkeller” [basement morgues] and a dissecting room, all these rooms being ventilated (having air extraction systems). The components for the furnaces were to be delivered within three months [Document 3]. This would bring the number of muffles for the two camps up to 21, or roughly 1 muffle for 6,000 prisoners. This plan for a new normal crematorium implied the temporary storage of the KGL dead in morgues in Birkenau before cremation in the Stammlager.

The Drawing Office of the Bauleitung produced three plans for this project in November and December 1941, entitled “Neubau-Kremat [orium]” and numbered 870 (elevation), 871 (ground floor plan) and 875 (furnace installation).

Bauleitung drawing 885 of 5th January 1942 [Document 4] showed a further extension to the KGL, now planned for a probable population of l10,000 to 120,000 prisoners. Camps I and II were extended, to reach their final dimensions, those a of the second and third construction stages (B.II and B.III). The Quarantine Camp still contained its “Leichenhalle” in the northwest corner. In addition, Camp I now contained in the west a “Verbrennungshalle / Cremation hall” with FIVE “Leichenhallen”. Camp II was given similar installations. Though the incineration capacity of these “Verbrennungshalle” is not known, it must have been very limited in view of the disturbing number of storage morgues planned (ten), probably half underground structures as were later the Leichenkeller of Krematorien II and III.

The Quarantine Camp Leichenhalle (appearing on the drawings of 7th and 14th October 1941), was drawn in detail by the Bauleitung at the end of 1941 under drawing number 785, entitled “Leichenhalle KGL”. A second drawing, no 812, "Leichenhalle für das KGL" is probably connected with this, unless it shows one of the ten corpse halls (appearing on drawing 885) from which another drawing, 1040, "Leichenhalle" für KGL" was probably derived. The drawing of the two “Verbrennungshallen” was also produced in January 1942 under the number 879, “Vorschlag zur Errichtung eines prov. Krematorium KGL” [Proposal for the construction of a provisional POW Camp crematorium]. Unfortunately, however, although we know the numbers and titles of these drawings, it is impossible to make use of them in compiling the history of the ramp, for none of them has yet been found. The multiplication of “Leichenhalle” in this prisoner of war camp remains incomprehensible, for it contradicts the existence of the camp itself: either an infrastructure was to be created to house Soviet prisoners, or they were to he killed rapidly, in which case there was no need for a huge internment camp. The majority of the some 12,000 Soviet prisoners who were actually sent to Auschwitz died during the construction of the Birkenau Quarantine Camp (the future B.I), before

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0183.htm

even starting on Camps I and II (the future B.II) where the ten "Leichenhallen" were to be. The fact remains that the drawing of these ten corpse halls is inexplicable without additional documentary evidence, unless they are in some way connected with the creation of Bunker I, located in the immediate proximity, though this link is tenuous, as we shall see.

During January 1942, Bunker 1, situated in the vicinity of the northwest corner of the future B.III, was in fact created, It was an old Birkenau farmhouse roughly convened into two homicidal gas chambers. Bunker 1 was not planned as an extermination installation (which it later became), but as a crude experimental station for studying the possibilities for the rapid extermination of numbers of people through making them inhale a toxic gas. The product selected, hydrocyanic acid fixed on a porous substrate, was marketed under the trade name "Zyklon B" as a disinfection agent. It could therefore be ordered in the normal way from civilian firms manufacturing or distributing it, without attracting the type of attention that would have been inevitable, for example, with orders for suffocating gas of the “Green Cross” Cross type. The method adopted stemmed directly from the destruction of insect and animal vermin using the gaseous phase of the Zyklon B in an enclosed space (for example when delousing clothing) or in buildings infested by vermin such as bugs, mosquitoes, lice, fleas, rats and mice. Because the lethal dose for humans was not known, the SS had made a botched trial gassing in the basement of Bunker 11 of the Stammlager on 3rd, 4th and 5th September 1941, the victims being 850 Soviet POWs and other prisoners. It was subsequently seen to be more convenient to gas people as required in the very place where all corpses inevitably had to go eventually: the morgue of Krematorium I. But trials to perfect the technique could not be carried out in this crematorium attached to the camp, hence the idea of establishing Bunker I in an isolated location on the edge of the Birkenau wood. It was very little used, if at all, for the extermination of prisoners found unfit for work after selection, up to 4th May 1942 [according to Danuta Czech’s “Calendar of events”], and its use for the extermination of Jews without prior selection did not begin before 12th May 1942 [according to the “Calendar”, but contrary to what is stated there, it seems in have been practiced from January 1942].

The Bauleitung Drawing Office, headed by SS Second Lieutenant Walter Dejaco, continued work on a new crematorium for the Stammlager and between 15th January and 3rd February 1942, the following drawings were completed: 935 (west elevation), 936 (north elevation), 937 (east elevation), 938 (south elevation). 933 (ground floor plan), 934 (furnace and chimney sections), 932 (basement) and 980 (roof frame) [see these drawings in annex]. Dejaco had met his deadline, as less than three months had passed since Bischoff's order of 22nd October 1941.

According to a tracing of the KGL and its surroundings on a scale of 1:10,000 [Document 5], the rail link between the camp and Auschwitz station appeared as at 4th February 1942 to be planned with no extermination of the Jews in mind, for there was no crematorium planned in the vicinity
. The future B.I was half completed. The cleared sector to the north corresponded to the dimensions of the drawing of 14th October 1941, but a new extension zone to the north was outlined, considerably larger than that appearing on drawing 885. To the east, the extension of the Stammlager continued apace, with an expanding industrial zone.

On 12th February 1942. two 3 muffle burden, were ordered from Topf & Söhne for the KGL [Document 6]. It is likely that each furnace was to be installed in a Verbrennungshalle (which appeared on drawing 885). which f or the planned 110,000 to 120,000 prisoners meant one muffle for 20,000 people. The Topf three muffle furnace had been designed at the end of 1941 by Chief Engineer Kurt Prüfer [Document 7]. What Prüfer had proposed to install its Birkenau was the firm’s very latest product and the fruit of his own efforts. The throughput of this prototype furnace, which had not yet been tested, was expected to be 225 cremations per day, which made the theoretical total daily capacity of the two Verbrennungshalle 450.

However, on 27th February 1942, as the result of a visit by the Head of Amtsgruppe C of the SS WVHA In Berlin, Dr Ing Kammler, it was decided that the new crematorium with five 3 muffle furnaces planned for the Stammlager would in fact be installed at Birkenau KGL (which would then give 1 muffle for 7,500 prisoners) and the order of 12th February for two 3 muffle furnaces was cancelled, a decision that was bound to upset Messrs Topf, and above all Prüfer, who received a commission on the sale of his furnaces.

Topf naturally wanted to be compensated for the technical and commercial work already done for the order for the two 3 muffle furnaces, the cost of which they estimated at 1,769.36 Reichsmark. This, sum was requested from the Auschwitz Bauleitung in a letter of 11th March 1942 [Document 8]. After having conferred on 25th March 1942 with SS Major Wirtz (Head of Office C III [Technical Tasks], one of the six sub divisions of Amtsgruppe C), Bischoff diverted the two 3 muffle furnaces to “another” use. (This destination is not known, but there would appear to be only two possibilities: either installation in the Stammlager to replace the new crematorium now transferred to Birkenau, or another installation at Birkenau, associated with the homicidal activity to come from Bunker 1 in May and then Bunker 2 at the end of June.) Bischoff subsequently requested Wirtz, in a letter of 30th March 1942 [Document 9] to inform Topf of this, in order to "clarify the situation". This was done on 8th April 1942. suppressing the expenses claimed by Topf, but the firm found the procedure somewhat high-handed and the dispute did not end there. In June 1943 Topf again approached the Bauleitung to claim their money, and Bischoff, thinking the affair had been settled since 8th April 1942, immediately referred it to the Head of Office C III of the SS WVHA in Berlin, since the original decision to cancel the two 3 muffle furnaces had come from him. The outcome of this dispute is not known (letters of 3rd June and 10th July 1943 [file BW 30/34, pages 34 and 20]).

The decision of 27th February 1942 to transfer the new crematorium meant that the drawings of the "930 series" had to be modified slightly to reflect the reorientation of the building to suit the new site in Birkenau. The four elevation drawings, 935, 936, 937 and 938 were combined into a single one, bearing the number 936. The marshy nature of the lands at Birkenau also meant that the planned cellars (Leichenkeller) had to be raised to a semi-basement configuration. This led to drawings 1173 (reuse of the earlier drawing 935, reoriented to the south and completed by a sectional drawing of Leichenkeller 1), 1174 (unpublished) and the addition to drawing 934 of sectional drawings of Leichenkeller 1 and 2 [see these drawings in annex]. As a result, the dates of 15th January attributed to drawings 936, 1173-1174, 23rd January for 932 (second version) and 27th for 934, are all incorrect because of lack of time or some other reason. These drawings must have been modified for the most part in April 1942, and perhaps some were completed early in May. In fact the drawing of the foundations, 1301, which necessarily had to lake account of the nature of the soil, was produced on 8th May. The correction sheet to foundation drawing 932 was produced on 14th May, last date in the first modification of the 930 series, for drawing 1311 “rectifies” one that was already almost entirely redrawn.

Between April and June 1943 there is a historical “gap” in the Bauleitung correspondence concerned with the Birkenau crematorium which makes it impossible to give precise answers to the following questions:

- When was the decision taken to modify the crematorium for criminal ends by installing a gas chamber in Leichenkeller I and an undressing room in Leichenkeller 2 (the only initial indication known being drawing 1300 of the drainage system of the building, dated 18th June 1942)?

- Why was the call for tenders for the construction of the future Krematorium II issued to civilian firms in July 1942, a very late date in view of progress with the "resettlement of the Jews" which meant that convoys were already arriving is Auschwitz?

On 5th June 1942, a civilian civil engineering firm, Huta of Kattowitz, working on the construction of B.I in Birkenau. produced a 1:2000 drawing of the POW camp [Document 10] showing the location of the (narrow gauge) railways used to transport building materials. This drawing contains an apparent contradiction: to the west of B.I there was a branch running towards the area occupied by the future Krematorium II, whereas to make this drawing Huta had used Bauleitung drawing 885 (with to the west of Camp Ia Verbrennungshalle and five Leichenhallen) which did not have a crematorium. This apparent premonition is explicable in view of the fact that Krematorium II appeared on a Bauleitung drawing of the POW camp dated 6th June and Huta, in direct contact with the SS, could not fail to be informed of this.

A 1:2000 drawing of Birkenau POW camp showing the contours of the ground for construction stage II [Document 10a] shows Bauabschnitt (construction stage) I in the final phase of evolution, having reached its final form, the double track railway, B.II in its final form and B.III, identical to B.II, giving a total capacity of 140,000 prisoners. Construction stages II and III now had only TWO Leichenhallen each, without Verbrennungshalle but with, in the western extension of B.I, ONE crematorium with five 3 muffle furnaces (the future Krematorium II) apparently for “normal” use (1 muffle for 9300 prisoners). This drawing, without an identification block, came from the Bauleitung Drawing Office, where it was produced in early June 1942, a date that can be established by companion with a similar drawing of the POW camp showing the three construction stages, the double track railway, and a single crematorium (the future Krematorium II), signed by Bischoff and dated 6th June 1942 [PMO neg no 10263].

On 18th June 1942, prisoner 17133 drew a plan of the drainage system for the new POW camp crematorium, Bauleitung drawing 1300. This number puts the drawing at the beginning of May. whereas it was dated mid June and checked on 9th July by Eggeling and Töfferl and approved by Bischoff the following day. This drawing, of a technical nature, required two months of work because it was necessary to carry out studies and measurements on the ground in Birkenau and the intervention of two Bauleitung specialists, constraints which perhaps explain the time taken, unless this was due to the modifications made to Leichenkeller 1. This is the first drawing to contain a criminal element, for the drainage of Leichenkeller 1 (the future gas chamber) is now separated from that of the rest of the crematorium, whereas there had been just a single drainage system on the earlier basement drawing 932.

A second farmhouse, three hundred meters west of the future “Zentral Sauna”, was crudely transformed into four small homicidal gas chambers, parallel to one another, which came into service on 30th June 1942 under the designation “Bunker 2". The arrangement of the gas chambers was directly inspired by that of the Zyklon B delousing chambers installed by civilian firms. 30th June 1942 marks a turning point in the history of Birkenau, for while there may have been some extermination of Jews before this, it was on an ad hoc and totally improvised basis, whereas henceforth it was to be carried out on an industrial basis, This was perhaps not always true in practice, but it was certainly the intention of the SS, who between early July and mid August 1942 launched a program of FOUR crematoriums with 46 incineration muffles, without counting the 6 already existing in Krematorium I, for a present and existing total of 20,000 prisoners, or 1 muffle for 400 people. Of course, this calculation is incorrect to the extent that it divides the existing number of prisoners, without adding those planned to come, by the number of existing and planned cremation muffles, but it does perfectly illustrate the criminal nature of the multiplication of crematoriums. It suffices to imagine a village of 4,000 inhabitants with its church in the center arid beside it a crematorium equipped with three 3 muffle furnaces as they existed in Birkenau, The installation would have human fuel for scarcely a week of operation. We need not dwell on this picture.

It may appear surprising that the“industrial” extermination of Jews at Auschwitz Birkenau was planned and put into practice so late: planned between June and August 1942 and actually implemented between March and June 1943 by the entry into service of the four Krematorien, For from the standpoint of criminal technique, the massacres of the Jews perpetrated in the late summer of 1941 were rudimentary and unorganized trials (those carried out by Einsatzgruppen A, B, C and D in the Soviet Union; the mobile gassing trucks is the Eastern territories; lastly the trucks at Kulmhof [Chelmno on the Ner] in December 1941), likely to be stopped in any moment under the pressure of internal or external events. It was not until the second quarter of 1942 that the “production line” stage was reached, irreversible and practically official in the leading circles of the Reich and the extermination regions: Belzec (17th March 1942), Sobibor (17th May 1942), Treblinka II (June or July 1942, depending on the source). Lublin Majdanek (September 1942, a date that would probably be revised to considerably later if a serious study of its gas chambers were to be made). In this tight chronology. Auschwitz Birkenau would he placed in late June / early July 1942.

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ГеннадийДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.03.40 | Сообщение # 228
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Возможно, для такого рода текстов на английском надо создать отдельную тему об Освенциме - всё, что написано о нём десятилетиями, в тему не вижу смысла постить. Основная наша "работа" заострена всё-таки на ОБД, т.е. на конкретных бойцах. В этом смысле для меня интересны исследования, например, Виктора Черновалова.

С уважением,
Геннадий
Буду благодарен за информацию о побегах советских военнопленных
Suche alles über Fluchtversuche von russischen Kriegsgefangenen.
 
NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.03.51 | Сообщение # 229
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At the beginning of July 1942, the Bauleitung invited two building firms already working on the construction of the POW camp, Huta [Document 10] and Lenz & Co [Document 11], both of Kattowitz, to tender for the construction of the shell of ONE crematorium (the future Krematorium II) at Birkenau [Document 12].

On 13th July 1942, Huta submitted its tender at a price of 133,756.65 Reichsmark, a price which was to undergo several modifications (described in detail below). On 15th July, Lenz & Co refused to tender on the grounds of labor shortage.

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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.07.56 | Сообщение # 230
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Будьте здоровы!
 
ГеннадийДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.08.37 | Сообщение # 231
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Проверил по ОБД наличие перскарт того же порядка номеров, что и у Богданченко (№5614).
С № 5600 по № 5630 шталага 308 обнаружено лишь 9. Более ни один из этих девяти в Аушвитц не попал.
Четверо погибли в Нойхаммере, пятеро - в шталагах III-го военного округа.
Вопрос: где остальные (карты)?


С уважением,
Геннадий
Буду благодарен за информацию о побегах советских военнопленных
Suche alles über Fluchtversuche von russischen Kriegsgefangenen.
 
NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.09.27 | Сообщение # 232
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BW 30 Krema II
8th April 1942
Copy/Go

Office C III/ 3a 4 Wi/Hel

Subject: Auschwitz Incineration furnace for POW Camp
Reference: Your letter of 11/3/42
Enclosure: –

Messrs
J A Topf & Söhne
Erfurt

The 2 big three muffle incineration furnaces originally planned for Auschwitz POW Camp [Birkenau] have been allocated to another construction project.

All the preliminary technical and commercial work and all the drawings are transferred to a new construction project, so that the operating costs and overheads to a 1,769.36 RM no longer apply.

Further details of the new construction or the new construction project will be furnished in due course.

Head of
Technical Tasks Office

Signature
SS Major

2) Waffen SS and Police Central Construction Management Auschwitz
3) Waffen SS and Police Construction Inspectorate Posen Posen
4) Wv on .......
5) For file C III/3a 4

For Archives
[signed] Kirschneck
SS Second Lieutenant (S) [Specialist]

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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.10.31 | Сообщение # 233
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Krema II BW 30
30th March 1942
Copy/Go
To be registered

Correspondence register no 5816/42/Er/Lp

Subject: Crematorium, incineration furnace for Auschwitz POW Camp [Birkenau]
Reference: Conversation with the Head of Office C/III, SS Major Wirtz, on 25/3/42 at Auschwitz
Enclosure: 1 photocopy, 3 drawings, 1 copy

SS Economic and Administrative Head Office
Amtsgruppe C Head of Office C/III
Berlin Lichterfelde West
Unter den Eicher, 126-135

As shown air the enclosed drawings, two 3 muffle incineration furnaces incineration were originally planned for the Waffen SS POW camp at Auschwitz.

During our conversation of 27/2/42 with the Head of the Amtsgruppe, SS Oberführer [senior Colonel ] Dr Ing Kammler, at Auschwitz, it was decided that it was decided that the 5 three muffle furnaces planned for the KL (concentration camp] should he installed at the KGL [POW camp], and that consequently the two 3 muffle furnaces would be superfluous to requirements. Messrs Topf & Sons of Erfurt now want to invoice the operating and administrative costs incurred in studying the project at

1,769,36 RM

During our conversation of 25/3/42 with the Head of Office C/III, SS Major Wirtz, it was agreed that the two 3 muffle incineration furnaces should be transferred to another construction project.

We would therefore ask you to inform Messrs Topf & Sons of Erfurt. In order to clarify the situation we enclose a copy of this mailer.

Head of Waffen SS and Police
Construction Management Auschwitz

Signed Bischoff SS
Captain (S)

For Auschwitz Archives

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0193.htm


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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.13.50 | Сообщение # 234
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13th October 1942

Correspondence register no. 16093 /42/Ja/Mh

Subject: Award of contract for construction work in the construction work in the Waffen SS
prisoner of war camp at Auschwitz, Upper Silesia
Reference: None
Enclosures: 14

SS Economic and Administrative Head Office
Head of Office C/III
Berlin Lichterfelde West
Unter den Eichen 126 135

Enclosed please find the following estimates, with request for authorization to conclude contract:

1) Estimate of 27/1/42, tender of Huta, Civil Engineers, Kattowitz, Friedrichstraße 19, with 9 annexes, for a total of RM 227 321.59
2) Estimate of Messrs Lenz & Co. Industrial Builders, Kattowitz, Grundmannstraße 23. i.e.:
Estimate no 1 of 31/12/41 amounting to RM 145 543.70
with a supplement of 7/7/42 of RM 406.40
Estimate no 2 of 7/7/42 amounting to RM 53 854.98
3) Estimate of 13/7/42 for the construction of the new crematorium according to the tender by Huta, Civil Engineers, Kattowitz, Friedrichstraße 19 amounting to RM 133 756.65

PTO

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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.15.00 | Сообщение # 235
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-2-

Because of the extreme urgency, the above mentioned work has already been allocated to the firms. subject to approval by the competent service. The contracts will be concluded on receipt of this authorization.

Regarding 1) and 2)

As regards the POW camp construction work, it was necessary to start at once in October 1941 on special contract. The construction order was given by Zl. II B So 8/3/Se/Lo of 1/11/41.

In view of the urgency of the work, the normal call for tenders procedure was not followed, because in any case Huta, Civil Engineers. and Lenz & Co. Industrial Builders, both of Kattowitz, were the only firms we were able to find who would be able start immediately, and who, at the same time had available the vast amount of equipment necessary, such as portable packs, excavators, cement mixers and other machinery.

The orders for the work were given verbally, to Huta on 4th and 6/10/41 and to Lenz on 8/10/41, with the instruction to commence construction work immediately. Both firms declared that they could not make a firm estimate at the beginning of the job because they did not know the conditions of work within the camp. and in particular the capacities of the prisoners to be employed.

The estimates subsequently submitted have been checked and found to be in accordance with local usage.

Regarding 3)

As regards the construction of the new crematorium building, it was necessary to start immediately in July 1942 because of the situation caused by the special actions, The firms Huta, Civil Engineers, Kattowitz Friedrichstraße 19, and Lenz & Co, Industrial Builders, Kattowitz, Grundmannstraße 23, were

PTO

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0198.htm

-3-

invited to tender, as they were already working in the POW camp.

According to their letter of 15/7/42, Messrs Lenz & Co declined to tender because of a shortage of labour. For this reason, Huta was asked to commence work immediately on the basis of their tender of 13/7/42.

The Central Construction Management requests your approval and the return of the enclosed original estimates with a view to concluding the contracts.

Head of the Waffen SS and Police
Constriction Management Auschwitz

[signed] Bischoff
SS Captain

Copy to:
Waffen SS Construction Inspectorate
For the Eastern Reich
Posen

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Сообщение отредактировал Nestor - Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.16.18
 
NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.20.02 | Сообщение # 236
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On 15th August 1942, a situation plan of the whole POW camp was completed [Document 15], projecting its extension to four construction stages, numbered (from south to north) IV, I, II, III, with a capacity of 60,000, 20,000, 60,000 and 60,000 respectively or a total of 200,000 prisoners. A letter of 27th August 1942, signed by Bischoff and addressed to the SS Construction Inspectorate at Posen for the Head of Office C/V of the SS WVHA in Berlin, confirmed that the "lodging" capacity of the POW camp was to be increased to 200,000 prisoners to [Soviet "October Revolution" Archives, microfilm 295, ref. 7021-108-32, page 41]. A double track railway was still shown between B.I and B.II as well as the construction of TWO crematoriums (labeled 1 and 2, the future Krematorien II and III), which gives 1 muffle for 7,000 prisoners, a proportion considered "normal". However, the two crematoriums, though certainly still designed without homicidal gas chambers, are formally connected with the SPECIAL ACTIONS [Document 12/II] carried out in Bunkers 1 and 2, i.e. they were to be used essentially to incinerate the corpses from these two installations, which were hitherto buried in mass graves,

The date of 15th August 1942 is to be considered as the end of the gestation period for the FOUR KREMATORIEN of the POW camp and the beginning of their construction. In fact the contracts for the building work on Krematorien II and III were awarded on 29th July The first drawing for the future Krematorium IV [PMO file BW 30b 30c/22, drawing 1678] was produced on 14th August. The contract for the construction of the four chimneys for the TWO OTHER KREMATORIEN (IV and V], of a different model from II and III, was awarded to Messrs Robert Koehler on 20th August 1942 [file BW 30/26, pages 52 and 53]. Thus the incineration capacity of the camp was to be increased to 52 muffles while on 19th August 1942 at the evening roll call there were 22,925 prisoners in the camp.

AS AT MID AUGUST 1942, the criminality of the Krematorien, normally by definition installations planned for health reasons, is evident from the fact that THEIR CAPACITY WAS EXCESSIVE IN RELATION TO THE REAL NEEDS OF THE CAMP, without there being any need to demonstrate the presence of homicidal gas chambers inside them, which is in fact difficult to establish at that date. Although a criminal trace has been detected on drawing 1300 of Krematorium II, it is unique and thus open to dispute, as it can be differently interpreted in relation to other factors. By contrast, drawing 1678 of Krematorium IV (and V) makes it possible to prove that the building was directly planned for criminal purposes, These are the only early traces. The real traces of the installation of homicidal gas chambers in the four Krematorien first appear in mid January 1943 and go on appearing until the end of June 1943.

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0200.htm


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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.26.04 | Сообщение # 237
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On 14th August 1942, on the basis of technical documentation supplied by the Topf Chief Engineer, Prüfer, the Bauleitung produced drawing 1678 showing the implantation of Prüfer's latest brainchild, the 8 muffle furnace, also known as the double 4 muffle furnace (this drawing becoming in fact the first one for the future Krematorium IV). At 2 o'clock in the afternoon of 10th August 1942, Prüfer went to a meeting with members of the Auschwitz Bauleitung in order to discuss the uncertain future of the two simplified 3 muffle furnace installations originally ordered for the POW camp and the installation of the five 3 muffle furnaces in the new Krematorium (the future Kr II) [Document 16]. After discussion with SS Second Lieutenant Ertl, it was decided that two Topf “fitters” (or foremen), Martin Holick and Willi Koch, should be rapidly detached to worksite 30, Then Prüfer suggested that the two simplified 3 muffle furnaces to be located near the “Badeanstalten für Sonderaktionen / Bathing installations for special actions” (Bunkers 1 and 2), should be taken from the Mogilew consignment, But this Mogilew contract was exclusively made up of 8 muffle furnaces, with no 3-muffle furnaces.


[It would appear that Prüfer was acting quite dishonestly (or, depending on the point of view, as a clever salesman), trying to exploit to the full the disastrous health situation in the camp. Motivated essentially by the prosperity of his firm and his own personal gain, he probably wanted to ensure the implantation of his furnaces (being also the creator of the 3-muffle furnace, standard and simplified model) in three stages. First, rapidly install a 2-muffle furnace intended for Mauthausen but sent in error [?] to Auschwitz; second, rapidly deliver two 3-muffle furnaces, taken from Topf stocks and not from the “Mogilew contract”, installing one near Bunker 1 and the other near Bunker 2; third, being able to see with his own eyes the catastrophic state of the camp and having direct knowledge of what was going on there, he could foresee what was to happen (large scale physical destruction of the Jews) and thus professionally assess the cremation requirements of the SS, suggesting the installation of oneor two 8-muffle furnaces in addition to the others, having already supplied the Bauleitung with technical details of this new furnace at the beginning of August. Prüfer, having finally succeeded in doing a remarkable sales job in supplying cremation furnaces to KL Auschwitz Birkenau (total sales: three 2-muffle furnaces, ten 3-muffle and two 8-muffle. But from all this he received a maximum commission of only 2,000 RM, something like $ 4,000 today) had slightly overestimated the real cremation requirements of the camp and his plan failed. First, the 2-muffle furnace was in fact sent on to Mauthausen; then the two 3-muffle furnaces remained on his hands (for only twelve 3 muffle furnaces were found in 1945 in Buchenwald and Birkenau, whereas fourteen had been manufactured [letter from Prüfer to Ludwig and Ernst Topf dated 15/11/42]); lastly, he was not able to install one or two furnaces in addition to the four of the original Mogilew contract, because two furnaces from this contract were sent to Birkenau to equip Krematorien IV and V. At the beginning of July 1943, there remained in the Topf stores in Erfurt: two unsold 3–muffle furnaces and three 4-muffle half furnaces of the Mogilew contract, paid for but not delivered (only one half furnace had been actually been sent to Mogilew, on 30/12/41)]

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0202.htm


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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.29.35 | Сообщение # 238
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Document 16/I
[PMO file BW 30/27, pages 13 and 14]


Translation:

Correspondence register no. 12115/42/Er/Ha

Summary record

Subject: Visit of Chief Engineer Prüfer, of Messrs Topf & Sons of Erfurt regarding the construction of incineration installations at Auschwitz POW camp [Birkenau].
Proceedings: Herr Eng. Prüfer came to our office on 19/8/42 at 2 pm in order to discuss details of the installation of 5 3 muffle incineration furnaces in the POW camp Krematorium and a new type of simplified installation of 2 3 muffle furnaces, as shown on drawings D 59,570 and D 59,599.

The following was agreed:

1) The fitter [Martin] Holi[c]k will arrive here from Buchenwald not later than 26th or 27th August and fitter [Willi] Koch in about 14 days. The construction of the 5 3 muffle furnaces will commence immediately. Messrs Köhler [or Koehler] of Myslowitz will line the furnaces and the flues and will erect the chimney in accordance with Topf & Sons drawings and instructions.
2) Regarding the installation of each of the 2 3 muffle furnaces near the “bathing installation for special actions”, Engineer Prüfer suggested that these furnaces should be taken from a consignment already prepared for shipment to Mogilew. The Head of the appropriate service of the SS Economic and Administrative Head Office in Berlin [SS WVHA] was immediately informed by telephone and requested to take the appropriate steps.
3) Regarding the construction of a 2nd crematorium with 5 3 muffle furnaces, together with the ventilation and air extraction systems, it will be necessary to await the result of negotiations already under way with the Reich Security Main Office [RSHA] on the subject of rationed materials.

- 2 -
4) The components of a double muffle incineration furnace have been sent by error to Auschwitz by Topf & Sons, whereas they were in fact intended for Mauthausen.

[Manuscript note in the margin]:
Furnace going back to Mauthausen! Ertl 24/8

Engineer Prüfer suggests installing the furnace here. The 2 charging doors and the 2 ash removal doors that are missing could be borrowed in the meantime from the consignment of 5 3 muffle cremation furnaces.
5) The damage to the new brickwork of the chimney for the existing Krematorium [Kr I in the Stammlager] was examined by Herr Kohler and SS Sergeant Kirschne[c]k who discussed what measures to take. As the chimney lining works because of the great heat, it must be free in the upper part and not firmly bonded to the external brickwork.
6) On Thursday 20th August 1942, the worksite for the 5 3 muffle furnaces in the POW camp [BW 30] was visited by SS Corporal Janisch and Herr Kohler and the necessary details were discussed.
7) Eng. Prüfer requested a written order for the delivery of the 2 3 muffle furnaces and the double muffle incineration furnace and a rapid decision on whether the furnaces are to be taken from the consignment attended for Mogilew.


[Manuscript note in the margin]:
24/8/42 Given to Prüfer:
1. Agreed
2. the two 8 muffle furnaces can be taken from the Mogilew consignment (in accordance with
the instructions of Head of Service SS Major Lenade)
Ertl 24/8

8) 10 transport authorizations are to be immediately sent to Topf & Sons for delivery of the refractory and other missing materials.

[signed Ertl]
SS Second Lieutenant (Specialist)

Sighted by:
[initialed Bischoff]
SS Captain (Specialist)

Auschwitz, 21st August 1942

[This new 4 muffle furnace could he twinned to give an 8 muffle furnace. It was probably designed by Prüfer in November 1941. Himmler ordered four pairs from Topf at the beginning of December 1941 for the Mogilew camp (located in the Soviet Union, 200 km East of Minsk). This deal was known as the “Mogilew Contract”.]

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0205.htm


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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.38.20 | Сообщение # 239
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On 22nd December, the Bauleitung Drawing Office produced a situation plan of the POW camp, drawing 1697, this time with three construction stages (with a maximum capacity of 140,000 prisoners), still with only two Krematorien (II and III), giving 1 incineration muffle for 4,700 people. Even though the construction of Krematorien IV and V had been decided upon, their location did not yet figure on the drawing. The double track railway did not stop “at the gates to the Krematorien” but continued beyond them [Document 20].

...

On 13th October, the Auschwitz Bauleitung informed the Head of Office C/IV of the SS WVHA in Berlin of the cost of the contracts for the construction of the KGL (POW camp) according to the estimates of the civilian firms Lenz & Co and Huta, and the cost of the shell of a new crematorium in this camp [Document 12]. This letter mentions the urgency of constructing the new crematorium, an argument often advanced as proof of its criminal intent, but this argument is invalid, because for the SS, ALL construction was urgent. On the other hand, this document is still vital, for it proves that the Krematorien were associated with “special actions”.

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0206.htm


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NestorДата: Четверг, 05 Сентября 2013, 14.41.58 | Сообщение # 240
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Waffen SS and Police
Central Construction Management
Auschwitz Auschwitz 3rd September 1942
When replying
quote Reference number
Correspondence register no. 12771/42/Str/Qu

Subject: Damp-proofing work in the Krematorium of the POW camp
Reference: Inspection of the worksite by SS Captain (S) Bischoff on 3/9/42
Enclosure/

Huta, Hoch- und Tiefbau-
Aktiengesellschaft
Kattowitz, Upper Silesia

The two excavations for the above building were completed about 10 days ago [since 25th August], so that the damp-proofing work absolutely must begin immediately.

After several conversations on this subject with your foreman Herr Stephan, the start of this work has been fixed for Monday, 7/9/42. The Bauleitung expects this date to be respected without fail, for the lateness of the season allows of no further delay.

Head of the Waffen SS and Police
Construction Management Auschwitz

[signed] Bischoff
SS Captain (S)
[initials of a Huta man]

http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0208.htm


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